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Chemical Composition of Pepper Sprays

The first known development of aerosol defensive sprays first originated in 1969 with a company named Aerko International Corporation (A.I.C.). The original goal was to produce an aerosol spray that would be packaged into the housing of a small flashlight. The chemical ingredient of choice was, Oleoresin Capsicum (OC). OC, is a red pepper oil that’s main purpose is to cause coughing, a burning sensation of the skin, and watering in the eyes. The purpose for its development was to ward off potential dog attacks or person to person aggression. Dogs presumably are less affected by traditional tear gas.

Choice Of Product: Effectiveness issues with this chemical “stopped” any further development for the next twenty five years, by Aerko. In 1994, interest in developing a self defense spray was renewed. Aerko International was again asked to redesign a product which would now include the chemical agents of: Chloracetophenone (CN) and Orthochlorobenzalmalonitrile (CS).

CN, “chloacetophenone,” is classified as a “lachrymator” which attacks the tear ducts (lacrimal duct) causing the eyes to water and have a burning sensation.

CS, “orthochlorobenzalmalonitrile” is an irritant that causes tearing, severe burning of the eyes, stimulation of the nerve endings, advanced secretions of the mucous membranes, and the sensation for restricted breathing.

Consistent military testing by both the United States and Great Britain indicated that it took less CS exposure than the amount of CN to achieve the same effect. It was concluded that CS is a safer irritant than CN, because it took a far less amounts of CN to reach a potential lethal level than did CS.

The chemical composition of defensive sprays includes: CN, CS, and OC.

CS (Orthochlorobenzalmalonitrile)

CN (Alphachloroacetaphenone)

OC (Oleoresin Capsicum)

CS and CN, alone are not as affective as when they are enjoined with OC. The three chemicals compositions working in unison together will act like-a-rock embankment between the perpetrator and the defender. Pepper Spray, which equates to the chemical “OC”, has the effect on so-called “hard-liners” of hitting the proverbial wall, when sprayed full face with OC pepper spray. It stops them cold in their tracks, no questions asked. A well-placed (full-faced) blast of OC pepper spray, they will stop what they are doing. These individuals lose their ability for concentration. The so-called “hard liners” alluded to as impervious to the effects of CS and CN, are not resistant to the affects of OC red pepper. This includes inebriated individuals, on drugs, or psychotic.

The primary aspect of interest was that the product needed to be effective. There are many different chemical compositions used in the development of Pepper Sprays. The following chemicals are the bases for many of the defensive sprays available on the market today:

* CS (Orthochlorobenzalmalonitrile)

* CN (Alphachloroacetaphenone)

* OC (Oleoresin Capsicum)

1. One finalizing conclusion was reached that a stream pattern was far more likely to achieve. It’s goal than a mist pattern application of the chemical upon the intended target.

2. The surface area of the target needs to be the face of the perpetrator to be fully effective. Quick penetration of the chemical upon the breathing apparatus of the perpetrator is necessary to achieve the maximum result of incapacitating the person.

3. A third dimension of this product is that an invisible skin coloring dyes the skin.

4. UV Dyes marks the perpetrator and may aid in identification once apprehended.

5. The UV Dyes only become visible under ultra violet lamps for up to 48 hours.

6. In order to maintain constant pressure within the aerosol can, a liquefied agent had to be into the canister. The liquefied propellant boils to maintain constant pressure in the canister.

This chemical action takes place after every use. A ballistic forceful-like characteristic

reaction result

Size and Capacity: The size of the canister ranges from 1/2 ounce canisters for personal usage up to 9 ounce canisters for the bear pepper spray category. Wildfire 18% Pepper Spray offers 1 pound canisters of pepper spray. There is key chain sized defensive sprays or larger that can be easily carried on a belt or in a purse. Even small canisters of spray have enough chemical agents in them to be effective if and when a direct application to the perpetrator’s face is administered.

Spray Pattern: Mists are known to be too negatively affected by the shift in wind current. Trying to deliver an incapacitating amount of material to the surface area of the advancing perpetrator was aggravated, by the concern to avoid the change of “blow back” upon the chemical administrator. OC pepper is most effective when the spray hits the perpetrator squarely in the eyes and nose, so they haven’t any choice about inhaling its properties.

Pepper Spray Stream is most effective when the perpetrator is sprayed directly in the eyes and nose. Pepper Spray Stream takes longer to affect the perpetrator. Pepper Spray Stream does have a good range of effectiveness.

Pepper spray mists have a shorter range of effectiveness than the pepper spray stream. Wind currents have a negative accuracy ratio in comparison to the pepper spray stream. Pepper

spray mist is inhaled instantly upon direct exposure to the nose and or mouth than a pepper spray stream.

A 6-8 foot range is plenty since that is where most personal assaults will take place. Most defensive sprays are also classified by number of one second bursts. A good 1-2 second burst will disable almost any assailant.

CS and CN, alone are not as effective as when they are enjoined with OC pepper. The three chemicals composition works in unison together, and will act like-a-rock embankment between the perpetrator and the defender.

**The two defining factors that need to be understood are that, the range of distance the product is rated to be effective in, and the number on one second bursts the canister contains.

In order for this self defense equipment to work for you, it must be carried at all times, wherever you go and practice using your chosen implement of self defense. Because your car keys are not always with you, have a second spray on your person at all times, for a backup.



Source by Penny Montague

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